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SECOND GENERATION STARLINK SATELLITES |第二代星链卫星

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SECOND GENERATION STARLINK SATELLITES 第二代星链卫星

发表时间:2023 年 2 月 26 日

Since the original license to operate the Starlink Generation 1 network was granted in March 2018, SpaceX has rapidly deployed satellites to bring internet to the hardest to reach places in the United States and abroad. Five years later, SpaceX has launched nearly 4,000 satellites and is providing highspeed internet to more than one million locations around the world, the majority of which are households. Starlink continues to grow rapidly, and SpaceX has raced to keep up with a surging demand for connectivity across the globe, especially in areas where few, if any, options for broadband connections have existed before now.

自2018年3月获得运营Starlink第一代网络的原始许可证以来,SpaceX已经迅速部署了卫星,将互联网带到了美国和国外最难以触及的地方。五年后,SpaceX已经发射了近4000颗卫星,并为全球超过一百万个地点提供高速互联网,其中大多数是家庭。Starlink继续快速增长,SpaceX竞相跟上全球对连接性的激增需求,特别是在以前几乎没有宽带连接选择的地区。

With the recent authorization of our second-generation network, or "Gen2," SpaceX will provide even faster speeds to more users. This new authorization enables SpaceX to launch additional, much-improved spacecraft with significantly more throughput per satellite than the first-generation systems. For the end consumer, this means more bandwidth and increased reliability. As a result, millions of more people will have access to high-speed internet no matter where they live.

随着最近对我们第二代网络或“Gen2”的授权,SpaceX将为更多用户提供更快的速度。这项新的授权使SpaceX能够发射更多、性能大幅提升的卫星,每颗卫星的吞吐量远远超过第一代系统。对终端用户而言,这意味着更多的带宽和更高的可靠性。因此,无论用户身处何地,都将有数百万人获得高速互联网的接入。

V2 Mini

V2 迷你版

SpaceX will soon launch a new generation of satellites that are larger and more capable than earlier generations. We call these satellites "V2," and there will be two separate versions of this satellite design: one that is compatible with the Falcon 9 launch vehicle, and one that is compatible with the Starship launch vehicle. When we launch V2 satellites on Falcon 9, they won’t be the full-size version that are designed to be launched on Starship. The V2 satellites launched on Falcon 9 are a bit smaller, so we affectionately refer to them as "V2 Mini" satellites. But don’t let the name fool you, a V2 Mini satellite has four times the capacity for serving users compared to its earlier counterparts.

SpaceX将很快推出一代新的卫星,比之前的卫星更大、更强大。我们称这些卫星为“V2”,并且将有两个独立版本的卫星设计:一个与猎鹰9号火箭兼容,另一个与星舰火箭兼容。当我们在猎鹰9火箭上发射V2卫星时,它们不会是设计用于星舰火箭发射的全尺寸版本。在猎鹰9号火箭上发射的V2卫星稍微小一些,因此我们亲切地将它们称为“V2迷你”卫星。但别被名字欺骗,与之前的版本相比,V2迷你卫星可以为用户提供四倍的服务容量。

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Space Sustainability and Safety

空间可持续性与安全

As we begin to deploy our Gen2 network, SpaceX will continue to lead the industry in creating a safe and sustainable space environment. SpaceX includes sustainability as a critical design element for its satellite operations, ensuring that no debris remains in space longer than five years, should a satellite become non-maneuverable. SpaceX adheres to, and significantly exceeds, any applicable requirements or industry best practices, and operates with full transparency, even going beyond what is required by U.S. regulations. As we've detailed in a previous update, numerous filings with the Federal Communications Commission ("FCC"), and an "Industry Best Practices" guide, SpaceX’s space safety approach includes many elements that greatly enhance sustainability.

随着我们开始部署第二代网络,SpaceX将继续领导行业创造安全和可持续的空间环境。SpaceX将可持续性作为卫星运营的关键设计要素,确保如果卫星无法机动,任何残骸都不会在太空中停留超过五年。SpaceX遵守并且显著超出任何适用的要求或行业最佳实践,并且以完全透明的方式运营,甚至超出美国法规的要求。正如我们在之前的更新中详细说明的那样,通过向联邦通信委员会("FCC")提交的大量文件以及“行业最佳实践”指南,SpaceX的空间安全方法包括许多显著增强可持续性的要素。

These include:

这些包括:

• Design and build reliability. SpaceX satellites are designed and built with high reliability, around 99% after the deployment of nearly 4,000 satellites.

• 设计和建造可靠性。SpaceX卫星的设计和建造具有很高的可靠性,部署了近4000颗卫星后,约为99%。

• Operations below 600 km. SpaceX has chosen to operate the vast majority of our satellites at an altitude below 600 km. At these altitudes, objects will decay and reenter due to atmospheric drag within a short period of time in rare off-nominal scenarios, eliminating the risk of persistent orbital debris.

• 在600公里以下的运行。SpaceX选择在海拔低于600公里的绝大多数卫星上进行操作。在这些高度,物体会因为大气阻力而在短时间内衰变并重新进入,从而在罕见的非标准情况下消除持续轨道碎片的风险。

• Deployment into low-insertion orbit below space stations. At these low altitudes (below 400 km), any SpaceX satellites that do not pass initial system checkouts are quickly deorbited actively, or by atmospheric drag.

• 部署到低于空间站的低插入轨道。在这些低海拔(低于400公里)的高度,任何未通过初始系统检查的SpaceX卫星都将被快速主动地或通过大气阻力进行迅速的去轨。

• Radical transparency and data sharing with the U.S. government and other satellite owners/operators to ensure full space situational awareness. SpaceX openly shares high-fidelity future position and velocity prediction data for all SpaceX spacecraft, along with uncertainties on those predictions. In addition, SpaceX is the only operator that provides routine system “health reports” to the FCC.

• 与美国政府和其他卫星所有者/运营商的彻底透明度和数据共享,以确保全面的空间态势感知。SpaceX向所有SpaceX航天器公开分享高保真度的未来位置和速度预测数据,以及这些预测的不确定性。此外,SpaceX是唯一向FCC提供定期系统“健康报告”的运营商。

• Advanced collision avoidance systems protect SpaceX and other satellites. SpaceX satellites utilize an autonomous collision avoidance system that ensures spacecraft have the most up to date information to mitigate close approaches with tracked objects (including debris and active satellites). SpaceX’s autonomous collision avoidance system has been scrutinized by NASA’s Conjunction Assessment and Risk Analysis (CARA) program, which deemed it sufficiently trustworthy to rely on to avoid collisions with NASA spacecraft.

• 先进的碰撞回避系统保护SpaceX和其他卫星。SpaceX卫星利用自主碰撞回避系统,确保航天器具有最新的信息,以减轻与被跟踪物体(包括碎片和活跃卫星)的接近。SpaceX的自主碰撞回避系统已经得到了NASA的共轨评估和风险分析(CARA)计划的审查,认为它是足够可信的,可以依靠避免与NASA航天器碰撞。

• Post-mission disposal. SpaceX satellites are propulsively deorbited within weeks of spacecraft end of mission. This vastly exceeds the international standard of 25 years.

• 任务后处置。SpaceX卫星在航天器任务结束几周内被推动进行轨道退役。这远远超过了国际标准的25年。

• Starlink spacecraft are 100% demisable. At end of life, SpaceX satellites are designed to fully demise upon atmospheric reentry, eliminating the risk of falling debris.

• 星链航天器可以100%被销毁。在寿命结束时,SpaceX卫星被设计为在大气再入时完全销毁,消除了掉落碎片的风险。

• Best Practices. SpaceX’s approach to space safety relies on extreme transparency in operations, and SpaceX has collaborated with other operators and experts in developing “Industry Best Practices” based on operational lessons learned. SpaceX encourages all operators to implement these best practices to keep space safe and sustainable.

• 最佳实践。SpaceX的空间安全方法依赖于在操作中的极端透明度,SpaceX已经与其他运营商和专家合作,根据运营经验制定了“行业最佳实践”。SpaceX鼓励所有运营商实施这些最佳实践,以保持空间的安全和可持续性。

Brightness Mitigations

亮度缓解

SpaceX has also prioritized collaboration with astronomers and scientists to mitigate the impact of Starlink satellite streaks on their observations. For our Gen1 network, SpaceX proactively requested two license modifications from the FCC to reflect two different deployment phases to lower the operating altitude of the satellites. These modifications were a crucial mitigation for astronomers and one endorsed by the American Astronomical Society to reduce impacts on astronomy, as well as improve space safety with respect to orbital debris mitigation. More recently, the National Science Foundation and SpaceX announced an updated coordination agreement to protect astronomy and continue collaboration on mitigation practices.

SpaceX还优先与天文学家和科学家合作,以减轻星链卫星轨迹对他们观测的影响。对于我们的Gen1网络,SpaceX主动向FCC提出了两项许可修改,以反映两个不同的部署阶段,以降低卫星的操作高度。这些修改是天文学家的重要缓解措施,得到了美国天文学会的支持,以减少对天文学的影响,并改善有关轨道碎片缓解的空间安全。最近,美国国家科学基金会和SpaceX宣布更新的协调协议,以保护天文学,并继续就缓解实践进行合作。

As we've detailed in an earlier update, SpaceX has proactively collaborated with astronomers and the U.S. government by dedicating engineers and resources to design and deploy mitigations and run experiments to test their efficacy. Initially, for example, SpaceX experimented with a dark paint to absorb sunlight. But when in-space experiments showed this mitigation was less effective than desired, SpaceX pivoted to development of a visor—VisorSat—to block sunlight from hitting the satellite and reflecting back to the Earth. SpaceX also implemented flight configuration changes to minimize the surface area of the spacecraft from which a reflection could result—both highly effective mitigations. SpaceX also started using dielectric mirror film on many surfaces of the satellite, which reflects light away from the ground and leads to less reflectivity.

正如我们在早期的更新中详细说明的那样,SpaceX通过指定工程师和资源设计和部署缓解措施,并进行实验来测试其有效性,积极与天文学家和美国政府合作。例如,最初,SpaceX尝试了一种吸收阳光的深色涂料。但是,当太空实验显示这种缓解措施的效果不如预期时,SpaceX转而开发了一个遮阳板——VisorSat——阻止阳光照射到卫星上并反射回地球。SpaceX还实施了飞行配置更改,以最小化可能导致反射的航天器表面积,这两种缓解措施都非常有效。SpaceX还开始在卫星的许多表面使用介电镜面膜,该膜将光线反射离开地面,导致反射性较低。

Since the first use of mirrors on our satellites, we’ve made significant improvements in mirror film technology and its application. We’ve also developed an industry leading space-qualified black paint for angled surfaces or those not conducive to mirror adhesion. SpaceX continues development with additional technologies, including a combination of dielectric mirror film (developed and made by SpaceX), which reflects sunlight away from the Earth, and the SpaceX-developed, low-reflectivity black paint, which reduces lower specular peak by a factor of five compared to the darkest available space stable paint. These improvements are implemented on our V2 satellites. With several years of experience and the ability to design, test, and field mitigation strategies, mitigations were able to be “baked into” the design of the V2 satellites from the start. Additionally, we’ve designed our solar arrays to allow off-pointing to reduce reflections as a satellite approaches the terminator. So, while our V2 Mini satellites are larger than earlier versions, we’re still expecting them to be as dark or darker once the full range of mitigations are implemented and the satellites reach their operational orbit.

自我们的卫星首次使用镜子以来,我们在镜面膜技术及其应用方面取得了重大进展。我们还开发了一种业内领先的太空合格黑色涂料,用于倾斜表面或不利于镜面粘附的表面。SpaceX继续开发其他技术,包括一种介电镜面膜(由SpaceX开发和制造),它将阳光反射离开地球,以及SpaceX开发的低反射率黑色涂料,与最暗的可用太空稳定涂料相比,可以将较低的镜面峰值减少五倍。这些改进已经在我们的V2卫星上实施。凭借数年的经验和设计、测试和实施缓解策略的能力,从一开始就可以将缓解策略“内置”到V2卫星的设计中。此外,我们设计了太阳能阵列,允许在卫星接近终点时进行偏转,以减少反射。因此,尽管我们的V2迷你卫星比早期版本更大,但一旦实施了全面的缓解措施并且卫星达到运行轨道,我们仍然预计它们将与之前的版本一样暗或更暗。

However, we want to emphasize that even though brightness component measurements, ground modeling, and analysis show effective brightness mitigations, we won’t know the full efficacy of our efforts until on-orbit observations are made of the satellites and data is collected and analyzed. What we learn from early observations will help us improve and refine mitigations. These V2 Mini satellites may be somewhat bright initially, especially during orbit raising and initial operations, but as our track record demonstrates, SpaceX will work tirelessly to refine design/manufacturing/materials and operational mitigations and continue to work with astronomers toward reducing the brightness of our satellites. Critically, we will also share our insights with other operators to protect the shared space domain. To that end, SpaceX will continue to make the dielectric mirror film and dark paint we’ve developed available at cost to other satellite developers and owner/operators.

然而,我们要强调的是,尽管亮度成分的测量、地面建模和分析显示出有效的亮度缓解,但在对卫星进行轨道观测并收集和分析数据之前,我们不会完全知道我们的努力的有效性。我们从早期观测中学到的东西将帮助我们改进和完善缓解措施。这些V2迷你卫星可能在一开始会有些明亮,特别是在轨道升高和初始操作期间,但正如我们的记录所示,SpaceX将不懈努力地改进设计/制造/材料和操作缓解措施,并继续与天文学家合作,以减少卫星的亮度。至关重要的是,我们还将与其他运营商分享我们的见解,以保护共享空间领域。为此,SpaceX将继续以成本向其他卫星开发者和所有者/运营商提供我们开发的介电镜面膜和黑色涂料。

 

原文 Source :https://api.starlink.com/public-files/Gen2StarlinkSatellites.pdf

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